As expected, total indicate urinary citrate is actually elevated inside the rats given K-cit (K-cit, 182±step 3

cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).

Desk step one.

Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl

Opinions was expressed given that indicate±SEM. Urine is actually compiled to possess 24 hr at the six, 12, and you can 18 wk to determine solute profile as the discussed on Concise Methods.

K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).

Pee Supersaturation

K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.

Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Serum Accounts

Solution quantities of calcium and you can PTH did not differ anywhere between K-cit–given and you can KCl-given rats, whenever you are solution phosphate membership was basically ;provided rats ( Contour step 3 ).

K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Stone Creation

K-cit did not replace the amount of stones designed or the amount regarding calcification regarding kidneys ( Contour cuatro ). Most of the mice shaped stones out of similar proportions and you may density together with equivalent quantities of calcification during the renal and you may meeting program.

Renal brick creation and you will calcification was not various other during the mice provided KCl or K-cit. After new 18-times studies, the latest the total amount out of kidney rocks and you may calcification was influenced by around three perceiver due to the fact revealed from the To the level Measures. Extent from kidney calcification has also been determined as the discussed about To the point Actions. (A) User radiographs of kidneys off mice finding KCl or K-cit. Calcification results into the images shown are provided because a research. (B) Quantitation out of stone formation and you may calcification in every rats receiving KCl otherwise K-cit. Values was mean±SEM.

Visible rocks were dissected out-of representative kidneys regarding both teams and assessed to own crystal morphology. The newest diffraction activities for everybody examined products were congruent towards diffraction pattern out-of biologic apatite, a cap stone ( Profile 5 , top). That have use of sign electron microscopy (TEM), every kidney stone crystals got a rod- or needle-such as for example contour, similar to the morphology out of biologic apatite deposits ( Shape 5 , bottom) and you will instead of this new octahedral amazingly morphology of CaOx.