Second, the intake of food items from the country, by gender by both is actually demonstrated in accordance with the dichotomised values


The new dataset found in so it data belongs to new Mix Federal Beginner Fitness Survey (CNSHS), an overall wellness survey certainly college student populations used in lot of Western european regions . In the present studies four web sites was in fact incorporated, and therefore conducted the study during the 2005: University from Bielefeld, Germany (DE); College off South Denmark (DK); Catholic University away from Lublin, Poland (PL); and you will Sofia School, Bulgaria (BG). The analysis used a personal-applied multiple-motif wellness survey, together with inquiries into numerous wellness habits. The initial survey was made german born and you can interpreted on the Shine, Bulgarian and Danish of the a couple of independent translators. Both items had been compared as well as their disagreements solved from inside the conversation which have indigenous speakers involved in the browse party. The fresh new questionnaire is distributed to earliest-12 months people throughout typical kinds throughout the final part of selected courses and you may collected just after becoming complete from the children. Zero bonuses was indeed offered. The fresh new effect prices (according to variety of returned questionnaires) was basically >95% (Bulgaria, Poland), 92% (Denmark), and you may varied (60%–100%) having Germany with respect to the interviewed teams (85% on average, down response pricing in the higher lecture rooms than in shorter meetings). The analysis incorporated 2651 members. Intercourse was destroyed to own sixty children and a supplementary 189 got missing responses in a few issues leading to a final decide to try size out of 2402.


A lunch regularity survey (9 signal details) analyzed consumption activities out of chocolate; cakes/cookies; snacks and you may quick/canned dining; fresh fruits; brutal and you can cooked create and salads; and meat and you may seafood (pick Table step 1). The newest basic matter “How frequently would you consume the next food?” requested professionals regarding volume of its common usage of for each and every food item alone (rated into the a 5-point level: each day, each and every day, several times each week, 1–4 times a month, rather than). This type of 5 groups were collapsed on the a couple of groups: high frequency (on a regular basis/daily) and you may low-frequency (a few times a week/1–four times thirty day period/never). Regarding three factors (desserts, products and seafood), high-frequency try defined as every day/daily/several times each week in the place of low frequency step 1–4 times thirty days/never. New appliance are according to pre-existing dinner regularity forms, adapted on the study and you will included in early in the day books . Both face and you may posts validity of instrument were determined of the grounding brand new questionnaire with the books review. Zero certified take to out-of authenticity was performed, nevertheless questionnaire is much like almost every other dinner volume questionnaires that were confirmed, elizabeth.grams. [25, 26]. Issue: “In which is it possible you live throughout the school/school term time?” examined students’ lifestyle arrangements during college words, with four closed selection and something open end effect (alone; using my partner; using my moms and dads; that have place-mates; other). It changeable is recoded towards one or two choice: in the adult household in the place of almost every other alternatives.

Advised agree and moral consent

Contribution on studies is voluntary and you may anonymous. People was informed one of the finishing the survey these were taking its advised accept participate. These people were and advised which they you certainly will terminate the participation during the one point when you find yourself filling in the new survey. The newest permission so you can make the analysis was provided by the performing institutions: Bielefeld College for the Bielefeld (Germany), the brand new Catholic School from Lublin, Lublin (Poland), the brand new University out of Sofia in the Sofia (Bulgaria) additionally the College or university of Southern area Denmark (Denmark).

Analytical studies

The analysis was conducted using SPSS 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), with statistical significance level set at p <0.05. First, the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample were presented by country and tested for differences using chi-square test. Bivariate comparisons were tested by chi-square test. When country and sex were considered simultaneously, logistic regression with main effects of country and sex and their interaction was conducted to obtain significance tests. When the interaction was not significant, it was removed and the model was re-estimated using main effects only. Third, the effects of not living at parental home on the consumption of the food groups were assessed in logistic regression models. Each sex-country combination was recoded into a new variable yielding 8 distinct groups. The interaction between this new variable and living at parental home versus other living arrangements indicated whether the effects were homogenous or varied across countries or by sex. When interaction term was significant, stratified analysis was carried out to present the effects across the sex/country combinations.